The costs and benefits of animal experimentation

Andrew Knight Date of publication: 01/01/2011


An extended written text extract that explores the ethical problems associated with animal research. Andrew Knight argues the human benefit of animal testing is insufficient to justify the high cost to the animals, particularly as non-animal models are often of equal or superior scientific validity. In order for animal studies to be ethically justifiable, Knight argues they should be on free-living or sanctuary populations, and should be of a non-invasive behavioural, observational or psychological model.